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  • Majority of the world’s population is suffering from the deficiency of proteins, vitamins and essential minerals.
  • Goiter due to iodine deficiency, blindness due to vitamin A deficiency and anemia due to iron and folate deficiency remain major health problems in India.
  • Through several food supplements are available to compensate the nutritional deficiencies, but new approaches are needed, especially to reach the poor.
  • There is a need for multiple complementary strategies to address micronutrients deficiencies.

What is biofortification?

  • Biofortification is the method for developing crops with higher level of vitamins, minerals, proteins and healthier fats to improve public health.
  • It is the idea of breeding crops to increase their nutritional value.
  • This can be done either through conventional breeding or through genetic engineering.
  • The objectives of biofortification is to improve
    • Protein content and quality
    • Oil content and quality
    • Vitamin content
    • Micronutrients content
    • Mineral content
  • Examples of biofortified crops: -
    • Maize with high beta carotene traits has been shown to be an efficacious as supplements of this orange coloured maize were released in Zambia in 2012.
    • Rice biofortified with zinc was released to farmers in Bangladesh in 2013.
    • The biofortified rice varieties have zinc content, i.e.- 30 % higher than local varieties.

CHSE Biology Health and Disease Chapter Notes

UNIT-3: Biology and Human Welfare

Chapter-1:- Health & Disease


  • Health is not only absence of disease.
  • WHO has defined health a state of complete physical, mental and social well being.


  • Disease can be defined as, "a Condition of the body or its parts in which the functions are disturbed or deranged."
  • OR
  • When one or more organs are not functioning properly.