CHSE Biology Health And Disease Notes Part – 2
- Suman Panda
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(Typhoid, Pneumonia & common cold / rhinitis )
- Typhoid fever is commonly called as typhoid.
- It is a bacterial disease caused by pathogenic bacterium Salmonella typhi.
- The incubation period is usually 1 to 2 weeks and the duration of illness is about 4 to 6 weeks.
- The patient experiences
- Constant high fever
- Abdominal pain
- Poor appetite
- Diarrhea or constipation
- Colored rush on chest
- Intestinal bleeding or perforation after 2 to 3 weeks of infection
- Typhoid fever is confirmed or diagnosed by WIDAL TEST.
Infection and Transmission:
- It infects humans through contaminated food and water.
- Salmonella typhi lives only in the human host.
- After the ingestion of the contaminated food or water, the Salmonella bacteria invade the small intestine and enter the blood stream temporarily.
- it generally enters the small intestine and then migrates to other organs through blood.
- Transmission takes place by eating contaminated water and beverages.
- Therefore, typhoid fever is more prevalent in areas of the world, where sanitation is poor.
- Typhoid fever is treated with antibiotics.
- The choice of antibiotic therapy includes fluoroquinolones for susceptible infections, ceftriaxone and azithromycin for established infections.
Prevention and control:
- Eat food that has been thoroughly cooked and that is still hot and steaming.
- Avoid raw vegetables and fruits. These may be washed properly and then peeled.
- Avoid apparently contaminated food and drink.
- Get vaccinated against typhoid fever.
- Avoid food and beverages from street vendors.
- Typhoid fever vaccine have been successfully developed and commercialized.
- There are 2 types of vaccines:
- Vi antigen vaccine: It is an inactivated vaccine available in injectable form.
- Oraltype21 vaccine: This is an oral vaccine.
- The protective efficiency lasts for 2-3 years in most of the vaccines.
- For a long term protection one has to revaccinate every 3 year.
- Pneumonia is a lung disease.
- Pneumonia is a lung infection accompanied by cough, fever and difficulty in breathing.
Causes of pneumonia:
- Pathogens like bacteria and viruses usually cause pneumonia.
- Causative agents of pneumonia are Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenza.
- It usually starts when someone breaths the pathogens into the lungs.
- The infection is acquired by inhibiting the droplets released by an infected person or by sharing glasses and utensils with an infected person.
- Pneumonia infects alveoli of the lungs due to which the alveoli get filled with the fluid thereby, leading to problems in breathing and respiration.
- Cough – one likely to secrete much mucus (sputum) from the lungs. Mucus may be rusty or green or tinged with blood.
- Nausea and vomiting
- Severing as though there is a chilled ambience.
- Feeling extremely tired and weak
- Fast heart beat Chest pain that often feels worse when one coughs or breaths.
- Fast breathing and feeling breathlessness.
- In severe cases, lips, and finger nails turn gray to bluish in colour.
- Primarily a physical examination is conducted.
- If necessary, a patient undergoes chest X-ray and a blood test.
- In extreme cases, the mucus from the lungs may be pathologically examined to find out if causative pathogens are present.
- If pneumonia is diagnosed to be caused by bacteria, antibiotics are prescribed.
- Plenty of rest, sleep and intake of rehydration drink are required. Smoking is totally prohibited.
- Pneumonia, caused by a virus usually is not treated with antibiotics. Sometimes antibiotics may be used to prevent complications.
- But more often rest and treating cough with conventional medicine work.
- Prevention includes vaccination, environmental measures.
- People of 65 years of age or more, having smoking habit and lung problems need to have a pneumococcal vaccine.
- The vaccine does not keep pneumonia away. However, if pneumonia occurs, complications may not occur.
Common cold / Rhinitis:-
- It is one of the most infectious diseases of human.
- It is caused by some 200 types of Rhino viruses and a small bacterium, Dialister pneumosintes.
- The pathogens do not reach the lungs. They infect nose and upper respiratory passages.
- Flow of mucus
- Sore throat
- Slow fever
- Common cold spreads through oozing droplets from talking and sneezing, direct contact, hand shake and using common articles like pen, pencil, books, cups etc.
- It cures automatically after 3 to 7 days.
- Medicines are taken to reduce severity of nasal irritation and clearing the nasal tract.